more notes on Team Nisreen’s new pdf

فهّم على means to make smoeone understand sommeone else. The latter is the object of the preposition 3ala. USEFUL! in diplomatic type scenarios, or interpreting. that’s the gist

forever = lil abad

maadde = a school subject . Or, material (substance)

مستحوى من قصة حئيئية inspired by a true story

byebrod = he GETS cold (or, he catches a cold – I think I learned this in class today)

ذوق ~ أسلوب   style
DONT thinkذوق means culinary taste: that’s مذاقاة or some spelling roughly like that. it’s III maSdar, probably.مذاقة. Who knows

If there’s one thing that could make you sound a lot more native, it’s prcaticing the ####**** out of tamyiiz til you start using it a lot each day. The gist is, use fewer words than you think you need to use. tamyiiz is all about slapping a noun at the end and resisting the temptation to ease into it with a connecting preposition perhaps ك etc etc, resist that.

Starting a sentence in a way that sounds hopelessly vague is something you have to get used to. Later in the sentence, often at the end, you will plop a word into to solve that.

Here’s a mind boggling excerpt from team nisreen:

Each number from 3-10 has two forms, one used before nouns and one used independently. Although with 3-10 these forms resemble the fuSHa feminine and masculine, they have nothing to do with gender in Shami

whereas i used to do ordinal adjectives like “alkhaamis 3aashar ” and stuff, here Chris says just do something like الدرس الخمستعش

One thing i’d criticize a little is the notion that plural days in shaami is tayyaam… I don’t see any good argument for treating that ت as part of some special plural noun form. It’s clear to me it is a taa marbuTTa untied – albeit specially.

also I am very in disagreement with the notion that “miit” is special in any way. It’s iDaafa untying the ة of مية, and Shaami likes straight-across (idk technical term) vowels so miit instead of miyyat.


Good Arabic lesson

 . اليوم مساءا درست خوائص العسل الطبية مع حسني، معلمي المغربي

استفدت كثيراً من خلال استيعاب مفردات جديدة معينة جداً بما فيها الحنك (بالمقارنة للخد)و كلمتين صافي وجلاء (معنيهما وضوح في السوائل والمواد) وصفراء (مرض متعلق بالكبد فيها يصفرّ البشر) إلى آخره
الحمدلله ، مفيد جداً
حاولت تسجيل بعض الملاحظات في كتابي ويجوز فوقت ثاني سأنقل بضعتها هنا.
السلام عليكم

less strict than I thought

Click to access Team-Nisreens-Fusha-to-Shami.pdf

“huwwe khaayef inno naaklo”
he’s worried we’re gonna eat him!
note that inno doesnt match “i7na” and that’s acceptable. Less Strict Than I Thought.


Now here is a STRANGELY ordered sentence also from Team Nisreen.
ma ‘aS3ab(h)a nihaayet gharaamak tekteba b’iidak
How Difficult The End of Your Love(?) YOU write It With Your Hand
or, more naturally: How hard it is to write your love’s end with your own hand

“in one go”   ~ daf$e waa7de

the ultimate bizarreness is after all this effort to distinguish one English “that” usage from another English “that” usage,   Arabic sometimes mixes up the two different translations.
It’s good that you reminded me.
mnii7 illi zakkartni
OMG! Inno also acceptable, but it’s bizarre that illi would ever be acceptable here. But it is. Surely in fus7a that kind of thing wouldn’t be ok? I don’t know.

But the more of page 76,77 of the pdf is that inno doesn’t have to match the pronoun coming after, the pronoun’s conjugation is what people look to for clarity and enno can openly contradict  that pronoun without any confusion resulting.

Instead of “tadwiir 3ala”, which I found in Cowell, I’d rather go with “dwaara 3ala” like Team Nisreen says, as I trust it slightly more.

salla – to entertain
teslaaye – entertainment. Irregular maSdar type thing,   used in the case of form II def. verbs

maTaar = airport

ruu7a= the going (as opposed to the returning) ~ zahaab
raj3a = the returning (in fus7a ar-rujuu3 which is how i’d been saying it. )
ruu7a ra3a – there and back. [to go] there and back, as in “how much do you pay there and back?” so the gist is that this two word thing can act as a useful adverb.

rattab – to tidy up something (trans.)

don’t try to translate “red-handed” literally into arabic:
maskuuni masks leyed
lit. they caught me the catching of the hand
it’s cognative accusative here, which sometimes flies even in colloquial. a decent amount, as mentioned in cowell’s book.

hab$e ~ a good deal (maSdar of instance, or noun of instance or w/e you wanna call it, from wazan I)
haabe$lo ~he‘s (Active Participle) gotten a good deal for himself

“heek 7aki” this sort of talk

Here’s a useful sentence:

maa byenma$a ma3a (VII)
she’s impossible to get along with

jaakar: to spite s.o. (transitive) (III)

note that the pronoun “self” : 7aal, doesnt pluralize in 3amiyye!
they’re arrogant = $aayfiin 7aalon  – nice! ez. (Literally, “theyve seen themselves)

khallii b7aalo: leave him alone
(rather than my guess “traako la7aalo”! interesting)

52 pages left now. perhaps I should divide that across like 4 days:

Monday: 85-98
Tues: 99-112
Wed: 113-126
Thurs: 127-137

which means I’m done for today.

More notes-to-self & from Team Nisreen’s “Fus7a to Shaami” pdf, and excerpts from it

Click to access Team-Nisreens-Fusha-to-Shami.pdf

Sedfi law 3ala haTTarii’ ysallem 3aliyyi shi rfii’
and if by chance on the street a friend should say hello to me.

What’s the Iraqi equivalent for “shii” in this setting? fard?

“of course!” like Tab3an
and ALSO it can mean “really?” like “fi3lan?”\”3an jid?”

betmanna law Sooti 7elu:
I wish that my voice were nice
hmmmm, interesting!

some of these instances of law are probably cases where I’d have omitted it, and that’s useful to realize:
“I wish i could come to lebanon”
yaa reet law fiyyi iiji lebnaan

I wish we had a son your age so we could marry him off to u
yaa reet law 3enna ibn b3emrak la-nzawwjek yaa
again, I was unaware that law would be added in a case like this. I belief Team Nisreen has referred to 3and like here as being “quasi – verbal” along with ma3 and bedd-

I’m going to do it(f)
ra7 sawwiyya

‘ahbal = idiot

notice that after qadd ma, they seem to put a verb, e.g. kaan,  suggesting perhaps a gerundival maa? I dk what kinda maa to be honest. But see their example sentence:
ezzalame ‘add ma kaan 2albo Tayyeb beDell ‘ahbal
the guys still an idiot no matter how good a heart he has

I’ve studied ____
daares ______

maa heek = Right? (“is it not so?” literally)
notice that maa is used here instead of mu or mish

notice that “kell ma” sentences (the more ___ it is, the more ____ it is)  use kell ma TWICE, whereas I’d been using it just once.

‘ajdab = idiot

raaDa = III , to keep someone happy (transitive)

reDyaan = happy (~ raaDi I think. but recall that these “aan” endings for adjectives, namely active participles serving as adjectives, are especially common in Syrian dialect)

I talk about ___
ba7ki fii ____ (not 3an! interesting)

notice here how the 3ala and illi contract!
I’m sorry for what happened
ana ‘aasfe 3alli Saar

Wow, note that illi can be shortened, like it ROUTINELY is in Sudanese dialect,   to il-
This is extra tricky since it resembles the definite article but is functionally very importantly different.
shu elfekra il-‘aaxdhiina 3an essuuriyyiin?
Look at that il-.  Common sense rules out the possibility that its a definite article.
So it means “what do you know about syrians, what’s the idea that you’ve taken (Active Participle!!!! plural?!?!?! I guess!) about Syrians”

what’s happened in the country (note as a question, but as a fragment of a declarative sentence)
illi Saayre bil balad.
Active Participle Alert!

and those who […]
welli   (weird sounding!!)

yensaani. notice without b- , it means they ought to forget me. Vocative, as if a 3rd person imperative.

bizzaat –   “exactly” as an adverb, as in “what exactly do you want”?

b- less verb form is  incurred    by indefinite nouns that are not just “grammatically indefinite” but moreover “don’t refer to a specific thing”:
beddi bint ta3ref ingliizi

bta3ref , on the other hand, would imply you are looking for a specific one, but you’re not grammatically choosing to specify her.

now on Page 73:

note that in the “____ ma” construction, it unties the taa in a word like saa3a:
saa3et ma –  the hour that _____ occurred, the hour when ______
Hm, i’d like some example sentences of this.

page 75 Is where I’ll resume in a while..

64-_ in Team Nisreen’s Fus7a to Shaami document, which is awesome & helpful…

Click to access Team-Nisreens-Fusha-to-Shami.pdf

law for “counterfactuals”: “hypothetical situations that would/could be the case now or would\could have been the case in the past , if a given condition were fulfilled or had been fulfilled.”

Conditions that are “unlikely or impossible to be fulfilled”; otherwise, iza might fly. Even for counterfactuals, occasionally iza could still be used.

law daras- byenja7
if he studied, he’d do well.

law daras – kaan neje7
if he HAD studied, he WOULD HAVE done well

law aynshtaayn lebnaani kaan haajar 3ala gheer balad
if einstein had been lebanese he WOULD HAVE (kaan haajar! past to be + past verb) emigrated to another country

law ma7allak beb2a bilbeet
if i were you i’d stay at home

law ma3i ba3Tiik
if i had [money] on me i’d give you [some]

law kaatbiin taalet aw raabe3 waa7ed kaan ra7 ykuun 7elu
if they’d (AP) written the third or fourth one it would’ve been nice

iza beddo yfuur dammo kaan faar men zamaan
if he was going to go crazy, it would have happened a long time ago

(blood BOIL – faar = to boil?! also, btw, remember bidoob = it melts. original i think yadhoob with dhel)

law bi7ebbu ba3D kaanu tjawwazu men zamaan
if they loved each other they’d have gotten married a long time ago

law kaanet elghafawaat ten2aas bil’iyyaam, ya3na ana na2saan 3a ‘add (qadd) miit 3aam
“if naps were measured in days, then i’d be 100 years worth of sleepy”
ghafa = nap? not sure of the singular.
notice to measure… tenqaas = VII female present. qaas I, nqaas VII, yinqaas, ten’aas !
‘add as the muDaaf ~ “worth OF” . I would have probably said “kemiit miit 3aam” but this now makes more sense, I can understand.

law bye7kuu l7eewaanaat shuu bi’uulu?
if animals COULD talk what WOULD they say?
notice how the bye7kuu is present tense! and it’s plural even though animals = nonhuman.
and both have b-
I would have for some reason guessed: “law kaan alkalaam mumkin lil7ayawaanaat…” or “law adru al 7ayawaanaat 3al7aki…” but I’m intrigued to know this is the more natural way.

now he explains that past tense , 7aku, conveys “if they were to talk on a specific occasion [what WOULD they say- still bi’uulu]”

law enni rajja3ton maa kaan Saar elli Saar: […] what happened wouldnt have happened.   Look at that, hmm! “maa kaan saar” it WOULD not HAVE happenED. past + past in arabic. a bit tricky still for me!

btestafaad = you benefit?? I thought it was btestafiid!! Hmm… This has to do with the X wazan’s 7arakat. yestaf3al… yestafaad. that fat7a means btestafaad appears to be the correct choice. I’m puzzled to see that tho!

[when kaan is followed by another verb] “Normally kaan appears with b-present [rather than] triggering the subjunctive.” useful!!! The most useful insight from all of today’s studying of Team Nisreen. I always ask myself, why is there a b- following this kaan , and why is there not one in this other case – — Now I can rest assured there usually IS one. Indicative not subjunctive.

anshaf = more dry.
manshafe = towel.

the fact is , some of these complex tenses have more than one way to express them in arabic. Look at this ridiculous thing:

law raa7et 3a $$aam , ra7 a3ref kell shi
if she’d gone to damascus, i’d have found out everything
very very weird that ra7 a3ref, in this cont., translates to WOULD HAVE type expression.

here’s another ridiculous one, and again, all of these are excerpted straight from team nisreen save for my typos or minor changes..
law maa kent 3am ghanni, kent ra7 kuun bi-jjee$
if i hadnt been singing, i would have been in the army
I was I will be in the army ~ I was going to be in the army. But here it is translated I would have been in the army. very interesting. Dont worry exactly about it, is my self-advice, just ensure you know how hypothetical the situation is and if it’s past, present, future or whatnot. Once you know what the IDEA is, do your best to cobble together some complex tense for that in Arabic, and hope it works out.

“Generally speaking, past counterfactuals have kaan + past verb in the result clause”
Ok. So… does that means it’s not clear enough to say the followinG?:
law Tel3et mbaar7a kaanet ra7 tuuSel elyoom
“she was going to arrive” is not the idea—- the idea is what? “she would have got here” = kaanet weSlet!

neg. verb NOR neg verb = neg verb “wala” neg verb.

3eeb – “[the idea] it’s wrong/shameful to feel a certain way” ~ shame

how I feel when[…] =  b-shuu b7ess lamma…
notice it’s not shuu b7ess! because 7ass has a preposition after wards.

sometimes plain “law” is best translated not as merely “if” but as “even if”, as if it were “7atta law” or “wa law”

now I’ma take a break from this document to have some dinner.

Sudanese dialect note & then Shaami/Palestinian

samaa7a: beauty. jamaal.


Now here’s something from Palestinian Olive tree dictionary:

A word that’s tricked me and confused me for no reason for all of time:

laa7aq: III

to follow

to tail, trail, pursue, chase. Like taaba3? Could be.

il buuliis bilaa7qo:   the police are tailing him

3am bilaa7i’ni: he’s following me, he’s on my tail/trail.


Now look here:

li7eq: I

to catch, catch up with; to manage [to do something]; to follow, pursue, trail

To manage to do something would be very nice to be able to express.

ana l7eqt il baaS: i caught the bus

‘usboqni u-ana bal7aqak: go on ahead and I’ll catch up with you

ma l7eqt-e$ akammel: i didnt manage to finish (can also say axalleS as an intransitive! even though it’s II!)

mumken til7aq ti7ki ma3o: perhaps you’ll get a chance to talk to him

hal-kalb bil7aqni: that dogs following me, that dogs on my trail

‘il7aquuni: catch (pl.) me, catch up with me   – imperative

yaa naas, il7aquuni: save me! help me , ppl! [people, reach the place i am]

‘il7aquuni 3albaTbax: follow me to the kitchen


Don’t confuse with 7 – l – q , eg.   ring, barber, shave etc.

A real long but useful entry, derived from the Sudanese book of proverbs and my notes in the margins thereof

talga – you find. (not tlaagi???)

lamman – until.   Or laamin.

7aaja – a thing. something. not shii.

siid = owner. siid al beet : landlord\

g instead of q.

da : this (m)

di : this (f)

adda: he gave. 

sawwa: he made. Nice. Easy. Not III tho, more like II here. Hm. Masder =? msaawiya?

wadda: he took.

jaab: he brought.

7agg: multiple meanings. E.g., rightful endowment. Right. Other times, like  taba3(Shaami) \maala (Iraq)

ukli: eat (f imp)

ghalabat: she defeated. Other times, II I think.

gubbaal: before.  Instead of ‘abl. This is a bit unusual. Also can mean across from, I think, like muqaabil a$-$aari3.

masak-hu: he gave him (!!?) p 124. He let him grab, is the closest I can Imagine for why this means this. But it’s not II. Odd !

as-sukuut: silence

tiltu: a third

wakt aD-Diig: hard times. notice, it’s SINGULAR! and q turned to k , aw man!!?!

waalda: she has given birth (AP)

wassi3: widen (imp)

soo’: wickedness, badness (conceptually, that is – you wouldn’t use the word badness in English and instead would do something like suu’ al HaZZ -> BAD luck)

al: illi (who, he who, a pronoun). Yes, al can be a noun.

daayir: want (AP). i think biduur is he wants.

Suuf: wool

guTT: cat

nassaay: forgetful. Increase your scrutiny on this wazan. It’s becoming more familiar.

baraahu: on his own. (sounds like barao sometimes)

katal: he killed

khashum: mouth

khalli ___ yikhaaf: make ____ scared.    so khalla is like ja3al in this case! It’s not translated as “let” in this case.

daak: this (m)

yTiir: let him be dispelled (jussive mood). Let him fly, no?

bitaHrig: it (f) burns

bisuud: he prevails. What the heck?

yakuus leehu: he looks for him. Not ydawwar or yab7ath 3an?

shiil: choose OR carry. Very very common.

yi3karr: it is murky/becomes murky

yiSfa: it becomes clear

ar-riDa: approval

sami7: beautiful, nice, good, tasty, etc. Note: some pronounce the 7 very lightly, so it almost sounds like a hamza. simi’.

bariid: I want or like

ba7mal: I manage

balaak: without u

biduurak: he likes you

$aayil: carrying

zeey: like

azkar: mention (imp.). SO it ain’t uzkur? Hm!

balwa: a calamity .   balwatu: his calamity.

saw:   do (imp. m.)  : think sawwi. But saw. Wtf.

yashtahii: he wishes/wants (VIII)

3aashara: he kept the company of (III)

raaD: pleased (AP, I think)

khirib: it fell apart. not VII? Hm!    II is destroy, make fall apart right?   and yakhrab beetak, is that jussive mood! Ahaa I think it is! li-yakhrab baitaka…

ya3aDDi: he bites. Why the /i/???

7agg: again, this can be gains or possessions. It’s multipurpose.

li7ig: caught up with, got ahold of.

3afin: rotten [e.g. meat]. Or moldy

faaDi7: scandalous/shameful

bigu: they BECAME;  like Saaru (not “remained”)

Tanbuur: wasp

argud: lie down (imp)   originally the g was \q\

ihbis: touch [it] (imp)

3iTi$: he became thirsty

yi3mi: it/he goes blind

yilga: he finds

minuu: who (interrogative)

3ugda: a knot

iddi: give (imp). Surprisingly not addi. Hm!!!!

bishumm: he smells (trans.)

muTallaga: divorced woman

3ibid 3an: stay away from

byibga: it becomes(!) That’s still odd to me! But I’m told Masri does it too.

shoof: looking at (maSdar)

ju7r: a hole (eg in the ground)

sheen: what  ~sho

tani: adverb for thaani marra

maragak: it saved you

yaba: he reject

yanfa3 nafsu: he benefits himself

leehu: it has

byikhla min: it is empty of (think khaal, empty, even in fus7a, isnt it?)

kur3eenu: his legs. (cf Syrian ijreenu, or perhaps even ijree? Not sure if that de-nuuning thing happens in colloquial ever)

ma masmuu3: cant be heard. Two interesting things to note about this, but namely that ma is instead of mu, mish, mush, etc. Also though, literally it’s not heard, rather than can’t be. That is a trend in AP’s, it can suggest in- prefix or a-,   rather than just un- or non-…

bital7as: she licks, you(m) lick

baayin: visible, revealed, apparent

gheebtu: his absence. Not ghyaabu? Interesting.

miskiin: quiet person. Not poor pitiable person ?

bishba3: he is satisfied. Think full, after a meal. shab3aan

silim: to be safe. One of those dang verbs that translates better as to be + adjective in English.

tikammil: you bring an end to ___

hammilu: neglect (imp) it

kubur: the size of, bigness. Used often in iDaafa construction in arabic.

guudi: lead (imp, f). Lead the way. Show me the way. think of the word qaa’id: leader.

mahala: slowness. Not necessarily a bad thing. think 3ala mahlak: take your time.

sawwi leek ___: make for your a ____

hawwi: bark (imp)

yaghlib: prevails OVER. no preposition in Arabic.

abaaha: he rejected her

jana: child

yibla3: he swallows

al mak: the king

gafa: neck (from qafa)

bijhalak: he disregards you

yista7mal = yit7ammal. Bears, endures

waddar: he wasted ____ (transitive)

at-taga3: what falls.    comes from aladhi taqa3.   This is very remarkable that al as a pronoun can actually be shortened as if it were a definite article \al\.    then notice too that waqa3 is an irregular verb, but it follows the fus7a rule where shaami could potentially be like…. illi btuu’3a.   

yi3aaksak: it opposes u

3asa or 3ukkaaz: a stick (eg from a tree)

shin = shinu = shu  . What (usually interrogative)

7ibir: ink

yijaddi3: the throws.