- How do I know when أنه is needed and when it’s not? Is it very clearcut in amiyya?
- How do I conjugate ضيّع in perfect and imperfect in Syrian dialect?
So… here we go…
1. There are two kinds of complemental clauses. Hypotactic, which has a conjunction to introduce it, and paratactic, which does not. Example of hypotactice: ‘aal ‘inno biddo yruu7. Example of paratactic: ‘aal biddo yruu7. Generally, paratactic is what confuses me more, given that fus7a is more rigid about such matters as conjunctions.
What are the most common conjunctions?
‘inno: that (note, sometimes yalli and illi are actually used as complemental conjunctions as well! That’s very odd to me!)
‘iza : whether (or if)
la- / 7atta : in order to
But in answer to the question, it doesn’t appear to be very clearcut. Instead, I’ll just type all of Cowell’s examples for hypotactic and paratactic and maybe notice a pattern.
فتكرت انك لمعلم.
I thought THAT you were the teacher
رحقول لسمير انه ما يتأخر
I’m gonna tell Samir not to be late (or, THAT he [should] not be late) – interesting.
لسا انا مو متأكد ازا بروح ولا لا
I’m still not sure WHETHER I’m going to go or not
وراح لبلد تانية ليشوف اذا بلاقي زلمة شاطر أو عالم متله
And he went to another town TO see if he could find a man as clever or as learned as himself
فرحت كتير الي رجع ابن عمك
I’m very glad THAT (illi!!!!) your cousin has returned
وانا مبسوط الي كان هيك، أو الي صار معي هالامتحان هادا
And I’m pleased THAT (illi!!) that’s the way it was, – THAT I had that examination (note that “I” was not the subject in the 2nd clause in Arabic… It was the test that happened to me, not I that had the test)
بعترف اني كنت غلطان
I admit THAT I was mistaken (note that it’s kosher to use this with imperfect OR , as in this case, perfect)
وعدنا انه رح يساعدنا
He promised us THAT he was going to help us.
لجنة حكمت عالبناية انها مو صالحة للسكنة
The committee ruled THAT the building was not fit for habitation
وامر الجن يرموني بنص البحر
and he ordered the Jinn (pl.) [TO] throw me into the middle of the sea
بحب كل شهر تبعتولي بيان بحسابي
I want you [TO!!! unstated] send me a statement of my account every month
روح اسئال امك بدها شي
Go ask your mother [IF!!!!] she wants anything—oh god, this is weird
لحقيقة بفضل ما روح لمحل بلاك
The truth is, I’d prefer not [TO!!!] go anywhere without you – weird….
انتني ئليله فايزة جاية
You (f.) tell him Faiza is coming.
خايفلك البيت يحبُط
[I’m!!!!!} afraid [THAT!!!] the house will cave in
كان بدي اشتريها بس ئاللي ما اشتريها
I wanted to buy it, but he told me not to .
If it were up to me, I would have looked at this and interpreted, “I wanted to buy it , but he told me I do not buy it” which is obviously silly.
مرة ومرتين قلبله لا تلعب بالطريق
Time and again I’ve told him not [TO] play in the street
(now this time, it’s written like “I told him do not play in the street” – easier on me that it’s the imperative here honestly…)
Now, question 2….
he Dayya3, yDayye3
she Dayya3t, DDayye3 (Isuspect there is such assimilation in imperfect here.)
they Dayya3u, yDayye3u
we Dayya3na, nDayye3
I, Dayya3t, Dayye3 (bDayye3 indicative)
you male – Dayya3t, DDayye3
you fem – Dayya3ti, DDayye3i
yall – Dayya3tu, DDayye3u
Bold is my guesses about accentuation.